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Avision AH640 Driver
Wansbrough's work contains many cogent observations about the Qur'anic text, but many of his arguments can be challenged. For example, one of the ways in which Wansbrough supports his claim that the Qur'anic text evolved slowly over a prolonged period-roughly two centuries-is by analyzing certain passages in Avision AH640 the Qur'an has variant versions of the same information.
Avision AH640 Driver
He argues fairly persuasively that the variants imply an evolution of the text over time, and tries to establish the temporal sequence of the variants relative to one another. However, even if one concurs with Wansbrough's specific conclusion on this point, it remains possible that the development he posits could have taken place within thirty years, rather than two hundred.
Both facts suggest that the Qur'an was already available as a scriptural canon at the time the texts were Avision AH640. Wansbrough argues that these variants represent the residue of paraphrasing Qur'anic ideas that took place during what he terms the process of "masoretic exegesis" i. This notion, however, has recently been challenged in Avision AH640 careful study of the development of Arabic grammar.
To pin the responsibility Avision AH640 such a process simply 4 This point was first made, I believe, by Avision AH640 in his review of Qur'anic Studies, Similarly, he fails to explain how the eventual Qur'anic vulgate was, in the late second century AH, imposed on people from Spain to Central Asia who may have been using somewhat different texts for a long time, and why no echo of this presumed operation-which, one imagines, would have aroused sharp opposition-is to be found in our sources.
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It is, however, virtually impossible to refute Wansbrough's interpretation by systematic argumentation, because his own observations are not presented as an integrated argument. Rather, Wansbrough creates a series of loosely connected and wide-ranging hypotheses which together Avision AH640 to imply his main conclusions about the date and provenance of the Qur'anic text by their collective weight Avision AH640 mutually supporting character, rather than because they form a linear set of deductions.
The Date of the Qur'anic Text 39 to remain intact on the basis of the other observations and associations he makes. There is, however, another strategy we can adopt to test a loosely constructed interpretation such as Wansbrough's. The proof of Avision AH640 set of linked hypotheses such as Wansbrough's claims about the Qur'an ultimately lies in the cogency of its implications.
Does the Qur'an really have the characteristics of a text that crystallized over two or more centuries, and largely outside Arabia, as Wansbrough's hypothesis implies? Avision AH640 remainder of this chapter will be devoted to examining this question. As we shall see, the evidence Avision AH640 cast doubt both on Wansbrough's assertion that the Qur'an crystallized slowly during the first two centuries of the Islamic era, and his view that the text crystallized outside of Arabia.
Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing
While not serving as absolute proof, our arguments will tend to support the traditional view that the Qur'an text is a literary artifact emanating from the earliest community of Believers in Arabia. Let us begin with the Avision AH640 of the relationship between the Qur'an and the l;l,adfth literature.
If the Qur'an text is really a product of the same milieu that produced the l;l,adzths and the origins narratives, so Avision AH640 the l;l,adzth and various passages in early narrative sources contain to use Wansbrough's own phrase "sub-canonical" versions of Qur'anic material, 9 why is the content of the Qur'an so different from that of the other materials? Anyone who has read much of both Qur'an and l;l,adzth will recognize Avision AH640 they differ dramatically in content-a general point that, I believe, Wansbrough nowhere addresses.
A ready explanation of this difference might be that the Qur'an and the other materials crystallized at roughly the same time and in roughly the same historical circumstances, but for very different purposes: Setting aside the question of whether the Qur'an text really is best understood as originating as a liturgy-a proposition of Wansbrough's that I also find dubious-we can still note that the differences between Qur'an and l;l,adzth are so fundamental that the plausibility of 9 Sectarian Milieu, 5.
Let us examine a number Avision AH640 examples. Qur'an and I. Frequently, the Avision AH640 is on obedience.
Whoever obeys my amzr obeys me; and whoever disobeys my amzr disobeys me. Ianbal, Musnad, XV, no. The reference to "the imams of the Muslims" may indicate a date for the formulation of this J;iadfth sometime in Avision AH640 second century or later. Abii Yiisuf, Kitiib al-khariij, Note also sentiments like: Some state that obedience is due only as long as the imam performs prayer; 16 others make it Avision AH640 that no Avision AH640 is due to a person in disobedience to God.